Learn binary conversion of IPv4 in dotted-decimal notation using some exmples

This article is all about binary conversion of IPv4 in dotted-decimal notation using some examples. In the previous articles on IPv4, we learn about some interesting facts of IP address and also learn what is subnet mask ad how to identify subnet mask of an IP address. We also read about classes of IP address in detail. Now in this article, we learn about how to convert our IPv4 address from binary to dotted- decimal notation.

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How to configure LACP (Link Aggregation or Ether Channel) on cisco switches

This article is all about how to configure LACP (Link Aggregation or Ether Channel) on cisco switches. The term link aggregation applies to various methods of combining (aggregating) multiple network connections in parallel in order to increase throughput beyond what a single sustain and also use to provide redundancy in case one of the links should fail. A link aggregation group (LAG) combines a number of physical ports together to make a single high-bandwidth data path. Continue reading How to configure LACP (Link Aggregation or Ether Channel) on cisco switches

How to configure PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol) on cisco switches

This article is all about how to configure PAGP (Port Aggregation Protocol) on cisco switches. We all know that there are total three methods are present to configure EtherChannel in cisco switches. That are static, PAgP and LACP. In the previous tutorial, we configure EtherChannel on switches using the static method. Now in this tutorial, we use PAgP method to configure EtherChannel on cisco switches. Continue reading How to configure PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol) on cisco switches

Understand how to configure backup route on cisco routers

This article is all about how to configure a backup route on cisco routers. In this tutorial, we learn about how to configure a backup route on routers, why we use a backup route, where we use a backup route and features of a backup route. We generally use a backup route in companies because the backup router allows the routing device to install a backup route to the management network before the routing protocol process is up and running. If somehow a router’s dynamic protocol gets a problem, it’s a good idea to have a backup route. Continue reading Understand how to configure backup route on cisco routers

How to automatic secure your router using auto secure feature

This article is all about how to automatic secure your router using the auto secure feature in it. In this tutorial, we learn about how to secure your router even without having basic knowledge of the router security. By using the auto secure feature we can secure a router even without knowing how to configure telnet or how to enable password on routers. This auto secure feature is also a very useful feature for newcomers who don’t have an idea about how to configure your router securely and you can easily provide security to your router. In general, if you want to secure a router easily then you need to read the whole book on the router just to secure your router easily. But if you don’t want to read a whole book on the router and simply secure a router with ease then this auto secure feature is very useful for you. Cisco introduces the auto secure feature to quickly harden router configuration files in an automated fashion. This is a quick and simple way to secure a router without having basic knowledge about routers. So, let’s start here how to configure a router using the auto secure feature.

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How to use CDP(Cisco Discovery Protocol) on cisco routers

This article is all about how to use CDP(Cisco Discovery Protocol) on cisco routers. CDP stands for cisco discovery protocol designed by Cisco company to help the network administrators. In this tutorial, we learn about how to turn on or turn off CDP advertisement on the routers, why we use CDP and as well as see the information of directly and indirectly connected devices. By using CDP you can collect information about both locally attached devices and remote devices. CDP is used to share information about other directly connected Cisco equipment, such as the operating system version and IP address also. CDP can also be used for On-Demand Routing, which is a method of including routing information in CDP announcements so that dynamic routing protocols do not need to be used in simple networks. In this article, we will also learn about how to see ios version of neighbor routers and directly connected routers. So let’s start here how to configure CDP(Cisco Discovery Protocol) on cisco routers.

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How to configure Etherchannel on cisco switches

This article is all about how to configure EtherChannel on cisco switches. In this tutorial, we learn about how EherChannel works, how to configure EtherChannel, why we configure EtherChannel and uses of EtherChannel on cisco switches. EtherChannel is a technique in which we combine two and more than two physical interfaces (ethernet ports) of the cisco switches. After that use them as a single logical interface(port). EtherChannel provides incremental trunk speeds between Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit ethernet.  By using EtherChannel we can combine the bandwidth of multiple ports. It also provides redundancy because if any port fails then still there is no connection loss. If one port fails then another port still active and provide communication and hence provide redundancy. Always remember that in windows EtherChannel technique is known as NIC Teaming and In Linux, this is known as Ethernet Bridging. So let’s start here how we configure EtherChannel on cisco switches.

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How to configure CHAP {Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol} on cisco routers

This article is all about how to configure CHAP {Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol} on cisco routers. In the previous article, we learn about PAP configuration on cisco routers. There is two point to point authentication protocols are present on the routers that are PAP and CHAP. But CHAP is more secure than PAP because in CHAP authentication protocol username and password are sent in encrypted form and in PAP authentication protocol username and password are sent in a plain text. So generally we use CHAP authentication protocol on routers rather than PAP for enhancing the security of your router. In this article, we also learn that what is CHAP and why we configure CHAP on routers. CHAP is an authentication protocol used by point to point protocol servers to validate the identity of the remote client. In CHAP authentication protocol we use the three-way handshake to verify a client’s identity. CHAP also sends challenges after a certain time to make sure that client has not been replaced by intruders. Generally, CHAP configured on routers because it provides protection against replay attacks by the peer through the use of an incrementally changing identifier of a variable change value. 

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How to configure null routing on cisco routers

This article is all about how to configure null routing on cisco routers in cisco packet tracer. In other words, null o routing is also known as black hole routing configuration over the cisco routers. In computer networking, a null route or black hole route is a network route that goes nowhere. Matching packets are dropped (ignored) rather than forwarded, acting as a kind of very limited firewall. Null routing is acting as a black hole on the routers because it sends unwanted packets from a certain network to black hole without reaching them to the receiver. it diverts all the packets to the black hole from where it never come back again. It is a type of trash or Recycles Bin for route packets. Basically, companies used this to drop some specific network to stop the DDOS attack. All the traffic from an unwanted network is sent to the null interface is discarded. Network admin used it to discard traffic simply by routing it to the null interface.

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