How to configure CHAP {Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol} on cisco routers

This article is all about how to configure CHAP {Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol} on cisco routers. In the previous article, we learn about PAP configuration on cisco routers. There is two point to point authentication protocols are present on the routers that are PAP and CHAP. But CHAP is more secure than PAP because in CHAP authentication protocol username and password are sent in encrypted form and in PAP authentication protocol username and password are sent in a plain text. So generally we use CHAP authentication protocol on routers rather than PAP for enhancing the security of your router. In this article, we also learn that what is CHAP and why we configure CHAP on routers. CHAP is an authentication protocol used by point to point protocol servers to validate the identity of the remote client. In CHAP authentication protocol we use the three-way handshake to verify a client’s identity. CHAP also sends challenges after a certain time to make sure that client has not been replaced by intruders. Generally, CHAP configured on routers because it provides protection against replay attacks by the peer through the use of an incrementally changing identifier of a variable change value. 

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How to configure null routing on cisco routers

This article is all about how to configure null routing on cisco routers in cisco packet tracer. In other words, null o routing is also known as black hole routing configuration over the cisco routers. In computer networking, a null route or black hole route is a network route that goes nowhere. Matching packets are dropped (ignored) rather than forwarded, acting as a kind of very limited firewall. Null routing is acting as a black hole on the routers because it sends unwanted packets from a certain network to black hole without reaching them to the receiver. it diverts all the packets to the black hole from where it never come back again. It is a type of trash or Recycles Bin for route packets. Basically, companies used this to drop some specific network to stop the DDOS attack. All the traffic from an unwanted network is sent to the null interface is discarded. Network admin used it to discard traffic simply by routing it to the null interface.

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How to create your own keyboard shortcut in Mac devices

This article is all about how to create keyboard shortcuts in Mac devices for any of the app. In the previous article we learn about how to block websites in mac devices now in this post we create keyboard shortcuts for your mac devices. I love keeping my hands on my keyboard not only because it is a huge time saver, but it is also pretty damn comfortable not having to switch backward and forward between the mouse and keyboard. To solve this problem, I made some keyboard shortcuts within System Preferences. Using the keyboard to perform routine and repetitive tasks is a great time saver and really ups your skills. But many of us don’t know about how to add and delete keyboard shortcuts in Mac devices. In today’s world, all of us find shortcuts to do work with ease and in a simple manner. But after reading this article you can also be able in to create your own keyboard shortcut and also use that keyboard shortcut on your system according to your need. In other words, we can say that you can customize your keyboard according to your needs and requirements on your Mac devices. So always use Keyboard shortcuts to increase your productivity and ups your skills. So let’s start here how to create keyboard shortcuts on your Mac devices.

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How to block websites on Mac devices using different methods

This article is all about how to block websites on Mac devices using different methods. In today’s modern world all of us use facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, skype, hike and many of other social platforms on daily basis. But these are really helpful when they are used in a limit. Otherwise, these are nothing more than wastage of time. To increase your productivity it is important to block these websites on your system no matter ou use Windows and Mac. To block websites on your Mac devices use these simple methods and increase your productivity on the internet rather than wasting your time on the internet. So use these methods on your Mac devices to block and unblock websites on your system.

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Learn how to block websites on your computer in windows

This article is all about how to block websites on your computer in windows operating system. In this tutorial, we learn why we block websites and how to block websites on your system. Well blocking any website on your computer becomes necessary when you really want to make it your personal computer. This method is also useful in increasing your productivity by blocking time-wasting websites like facebook, youtube etc. There are many extensions present on the internet to do this work but they work for a certain time interval. If you want to block websites permanently on your system then use these methods on your windows operating system. Here in this tutorial, we learn two easiest methods to block websites on your computer. This method is also useful when you never want that anyone uses your computer for a long time and keeps using your internet while you just shit aside them to see what they are doing. You can simply block the sites and prevent then from opening in your system to get rid of this problem. So let’s start here how to block websites on your computer using two different methods.

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How to configure static routing on routers along with switches

This article is all about how to configure static routing on cisco routers along with switches. In the previous posts in CCNA we learn many of things about routers and routing but we never learn about how to configure routing on routers along with switches. In this tutorial, we take routers and switches to understand this routing concept in a simple way with ease. In this tutorial, we learn some tricky static routing. Generally, we use routers to connect two different networks and switches in the same network to provide a medium to communicate PCs with each other. Here in this tutorial, we create a lab in which we mix routers and switches. After that configure static routing on routers to provide a medium to communicate between PCs which are in different networks and use switches to communicate PCs and routers in the same network. After reading this post you easily differentiate switches and routers and their work also. So let’s start here how to configure static routing on routers along with switches.

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Files and folder management in Linux part 2 {File Types}

This article is all about Files and folder management in Linux part 2. In the previous post Files and folder management part 1 we learn about files and folder creation in Linux using different methods. Now in this tutorial, we will learn about types of files in Linux. There are various types of files will be present in the Linux operating system that is described by a single character in Linux. Each file type has a character and symbol by which we can easily identify what kind of file is it. In this tutorial, we will learn and try to understand the types of files in Linux and how to identify them. This is a common question to everyone who starts to learn Linux why is it much important to know file types. So here I give you answer this question that is because Linux considered everything as a file. When you start working on Linux you have to deal with different file types to effectively manage them. So let’s start here to learn file types in Linux.

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How to configure PAP {Password Authentication Protocol} on cisco routers

This article is all about how to configure PAP on cisco routers. In the previous article, we learn about how to create VLANs on cisco switches. Now in this tutorial, we learn about routers and their protocols. PAP is an authentication method that can be used over Point to Point link. Here we read a word Authentication that means you can use authentication to verify a router’s identity when it is connecting into your router options for authentication including CHAP and PAP. There are two authentication methods are present such as CHAP and PAP that can be used over Point to Point links. PAP is a simple and less secure method in comparison to the CHAP. In PAP authentication method password and username are sent in plain text, there is no encryption or protection. If it is accepted then the connection is allowed. PAP authentication method goes through two-way handshake process but it is not considered as a strong authentication protocol. In CHAP authentication method there is three-way handshake process and username and password are sent in encrypted form but still, PAP is a useful method. So let’s start here how to configure PAP on cisco routers.

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How to transfer files and folders (Data) from one computer to another using TeamViewer

This article is all about how to transfer files and folders (Data) from one computer to another using TeamViewer software. This is the easiest way to transfer data between two devices. In this tutorial, we will learn about TeamViewer software like how TeamViewer works, why we use TeamViewer and uses of TeamViewer software in different kind of works such as video chatting, remote access of another computer, file transferring etc. Generally, we use TeamViewer for remote access to other computers but it also provides many of features to us. But the best part of this software is that it is free of cost and it is available for all the platforms no matter what you use like Windows, Linux, Macintosh, and Android also. By using this software you can also be able to transfer files from your friend to yours no matter where he was lives in another city or town. There are lots of tools available out there, but many of those Softwares required some extra service or tools and some are too complicated to understand and some may also require a monthly subscription. So we use TeamViewer for this purpose because it is free of cost software for all the platforms. So let’s start here how to transfer files from one computer to another using TeamViewer software.

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Learn How to create VLANs on cisco switches

This article is all about how to create VLAN on cisco switches. In this tutorial, we learn basic concepts of VLANs like how to create VLAN, where we use VLANs, How to remove VLAN and How to create trunk in between two switches to communicate between our VLANs. Here we also learn that what are VLANs, why we use VLANs on switches etc. We all know that by default switches are worked on VLAN 1. In general words, we can say that VLAN is a broadcast domain which is formed by switches. Generally, we use VLANs for make a single switch into multiple virtual switches. VLAN is also useful when we are feeling a lot of broadcast traffic on our VLAN. In these cases, VLANs are a very useful option for switches. In the last, we create a trunk between two switches because without trunk creation we do not be able in to carry traffic from more than one VLAN. we also run troubleshooting commands on the switches to verify and troubleshoot our configuration easily on the switches. S0 let’s start here how to create VLANs on a cisco switch.

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